Haryana is a North Indian state surrounding New Delhi on 3 sides. The Yamuna River runs along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Shared with Punjab, the state capital Chandigarh is known for its modernist buildings and gridlike street plan designed by Swiss architect, Le Corbusier. The Zakir Hussain Rose Garden features 1,600 species, while its Rock Garden showcases sculptures made with recycled materials.
The state of Haryana that belongs to the Kuru region of North India was formed on 1st November 1966. 'Adobe of God'is the Sanskrit meaning of the word Haryana. The state is referred as the cradle of Indus Valley and Vedic Civilization that flourished at the banks of the extinct Saraswati River. The Epic wars and other significant wars fought there has influenced the shaping of Indian History. Haryana was under the administration of Punjab Province in the British India. However, after independence the state became part of the Indian Union as the India's 17th state formed on linguistic basis in 1966.
The state is one of India's largest automobile hubs and accounts for two thirds of passenger cars, 50 per cent of tractors and 60 per cent of motorcycles manufactured in the country. The state has also emerged as a base for the knowledge industry, including IT and biotechnology. Haryana is the third-largest exporter of software and one of the preferred destinations for IT/ITeS facilities.
After ousting the Huns, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar near Kurukshetra in the 7th century CE. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratiharas ruled over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha's adopted capital Kannauj. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India even though Thanesar was no more as central as Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Taraori and Hansi in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat. The first battle took place in 1526, where Babur, the ruler of Kabul defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate, through the use of field artillery. This battle marked the beginning of the Mughal empire in India.
In the Second Battle of Panipat (November 5, 1556), Akbar's general Bairam Khan defeated Hemu, the local Haryanvi who grew up in Rewari. Hemu, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana, rose from a businessman to become advisor to Afghan kings and then Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army. He fought and won 22 battles in between 1553 and 1556, from Punjab to Bengal against Afghans and Mughals and won all of them without losing any. Hemu defeated Akbar's army at Tughlaqabad in Battle of Delhi-1556 and became king at Delhi on 7 October 1556 declaring himself as Vikramaditya following the reigns of earlier Vedic kings. Hemu lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on January 13, 1761.
On 1 November 1966, Haryana was carved out on the basis of that the parts of Punjab which were to be Haryana's "Hindi-speaking areas." Same example was followed in creation of [Himachal Pradesh] as well. Haryana state was formed on the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965.
Language And Culture
The state language of Haryana is Haryanvi although Haryanvi is not recognized as the official language of the state because it does not have any official status. Since 1947, Punjabi has been spoken by many people in Haryana especially by those Hindus and Sikhs who migrated from West Punjab, following the Partition of India. As such, Punjabi edged out Tamil as the secondary official language of the state, other than Hindi and English, in 2010.
Haryana is proud of a rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic times. The state is rich in folklore. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation, Yoga and chanting of Vedic Mantras, are still observed by the masses. The seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. The dance is said to be the mother of all arts. Music and poetry exist in tune, painting and architecture in space. The dance is just not a form of recreation but something needed to release the physical and emotional energy. Folk dances, like other creative art, helps in sublimating the performer's worries and cares. Haryana has always been a state of diverse races, cultures and faiths. It is on this soil that they met and fused into something truly India. The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight.
State animal: Blackbuck (kala hiran)
State bird: Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus)
State flower: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
State tree: Pipal (Ficus religiosa)
How to Reach
The main airport of the state is in its capital Chandigarh. Which is well connected with the cities of North India. Some parts of Haryana are also very close to the Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi which also provides an easy access to the state.
Haryana is very well connected by convenient trains from all over India with many long distance trains crossing the state as they link up the east-west and the north and south regions of the country. Pre-paid auto rickshaw, rickshaws and taxis are available outside most stations. The Shatabdi Express connects Ambala and Chandigarh to New Delhi. Besides those, there are other superfast/express trains to both places.
The state features 29 national highways and various state highways. The Grand Trunk Road runs across the districts of Panipat, Sonipat, Kurukshetra, Karnal, and Ambala. The Kundli-Manesar-Palwal or KMP Expressway is another major motorway under construction in the state. NH 21 and NH 22 join Chandigarh to different cities in India such as Kalka, Ambala, Kinnaur, Shimla, Leh, and Chandigarh.